Publications (selection)

Peer reviewed publications

The Roman Limes on the Lower Rhine: A European Border’s Visibility in Landscape and Museums, by R. de Bruin, A. Hertog and R. Paardekooper,
In: A. Mac Devitt, M. Foehn & S. Heft (editors), Museum International, Vol. 69, #273-274, 2017, Museums and Cultural Landscapes: New Directions | Cultural Routes | Field Reports, Paris: ICOM & Blackwell Publishing, pp 114-125.
The International Council of Museums (ICOM) held their General Conference in 2016 under the theme ‘Museums and Cultural Landscapes’. ICOM Netherlands hosted a session there entitled ‘The Roman Frontier along the River Rhine—the role of museums in revitalising cultural landscapes’. This article is a review of the themes emerging from that session, put in the larger framework of the World Heritage Site nomination process for the German/Dutch area.

Archäologische Freilichtmuseen: Geschichte, Qualität und Praxis
In: O. Chvojka et al., ed. Fines Transire 15, 2016, Archäologische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Ostbayern/West- und Südböhmen/Oberösterreich, 25. Treffen, 2015 in Bärnau, Rahden/Westf.: Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH, pp 53-60.
The 25th meeting of this special cross-border network was about the constructed past. Paardekooper held the keynote speech on archaeological open-air museums. The two-day conference showed many examples of archaeological constructions which were meant to explain archaeology, add something to the landscape, charge discussion and much more. Important questions in all three countries were about the huge diversity in possibilities as well as in: what happens when the construct stands there: who pays the maintenance and who is actually responsible?

Archaeological open-air museums across Europe. Their 125 years history and a debate on their future 
In: J. Gancarski, ed. Skanseny Archeologiczne i Archeologia Eksperymentalna, proceedings of the 2006 Krosno Conference, Krosno: Muzeum Archeologiczne, pp 13-34. 
The Conference in 2006 was the first of its kind, combining researchers on the subjects archaeological open-air museums and experimental archaeology. The importance of these proceedings lie in the fact that it gives a state of the art overview of these subjects in Eastern Europe. My role was to place this in a larger European frame where I mainly focussed on the place in history of archaeological open-air museums and simultaneously painting the international landscape and developments in this field.

Performance in Experimental Archaeology, Any Possibility for Unambiguous Statements? 
In: T. Kerig & A. Zimmermann, eds. Economic Archaeology: From Structure to Performance, Habelt (UPA series), pp 264-272.
These proceedings of a conference in Cologne in 2009 discuss the economic side of archaeological investigation. Using several examples of archaeological experiments, I discussed the value for archaeology, if executed right. Not only did I state the importance of experimental archaeology as part of a toolkit of methods any archaeological project could benefit from, I also demonstrated the wide scope of this sub field of archaeology.​

The Value of an Archaeological Open-Air Museum is in its use. Understanding Archaeological Open-Air Museums and their Visitors, Leiden: Sidestone Press, 342 pp. (PhD Thesis, commercially available as hard copy and Ebook through )
This work is my dissertation. With publication of my monograph we now have for the first time a secure databank of facts and figures relating to archaeological open-air museums in Europe, including management structures, key financial indicators, visitor profiles and visitor numbers. This study sets out a number of very clear goals. These are: to characterise the sites; to explore issues of management and finances, staff, collections, marketing and interpretation; to compare the objective of visitor experience with the reality as perceived by the visitors themselves, and to look at ways of improving the situation.

Experimental Activities, a European Perspective 
In: B. Petersson & L. Narmo, eds. Experimental Archaeology, between enlightenment and experience, vol. 62, Acta Archeologica Lundensia, Lund: Lund University, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, pp 69-86.
This volume is one of the very few overviews of experimental archaeology in Scandinavia over the past decades and is the result of several workshops. My article puts experimental archaeology in an international perspective, with emphasis on the humanities side of this field.

Archaeological Open-Air Museums as Time Travel Centres 
In: Lund Archaeological Review, vol. 2009-2010, Lund: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, University of Lund, pp 61-70.
This volume are the proceedings of a three-year project, funded by the Crafoord Foundation. This was about developing time travel ideas, emotions and techniques for interpretation of archaeological sites and archaeological open-air museums. We worked with three different museums; each in another country where we developed augmented reality and 3D applications applied to a public context.

Other Publications and Research Outputs

The Story of your Site: Archaeological Site Museums and Archaeological Open-Air Museums
In: K. Dvorakova et al. (editors), EXARC Journal, Leiden: EXARC 2020/4.
Site museums are a bit forgotten, while combining original sites with a reconstructed environment can work very well.

Experience instead of Event: Changes in Open-Air Museums Post-Coronavirus
In: K. Dvorakova et al. (editors), EXARC Journal, Leiden: EXARC. 2020/2.
Together with Annemarie Pothaar, I discussed how musuems should change towards the future: it's not only COVID-19 which is important, but also the original value of museums.

The Use and Relevance of Archaeological Open-Air Museums
In: K. Dvorakova et al. (editors), EXARC Journal, Leiden: EXARC. 2020/1.
Here I emphasise, more than before, how museums (should) have relevance for modern society, think of sustainabilty and more.


Everybody Else is doing It, so Why Can’t We?
In: K. Dvorakova et al. (editors), EXARC Journal, Leiden: EXARC
What happens when digital professionals and archaeological open-air museums try to make interpretive apps for visitors? What goes wrong and how can we learn from each other?   

Laureshams Rolle in der experimentellen Archäologie.
In: Claus Kropp (editor). Lauershamensia. Bad Homburg v.d. Höhe: Experimentalarchäologisches Freilichtlabor Karolingischer Herrenhof Lauresham, pp 3-4
I introduced the themes of the yearbook and placed these in a wider context. 

Experimental Archaeology: Who Does It, What Is the Use?
In: K. Dvorakova et al. (editors), EXARC Journal 2019/1, Leiden: EXARC,
An article, condensing current opinions about experimental archaeology across Europe, aiming to push discussion a bit further – where do we go from here?

Die Funktion archäologischer Freilichtmuseen – eine internationale Perspektive.
In: Julia Heeb (editor), Düppel Journal für Archäologie, Geschichte und Naturkunde des Museumsdorfs Düppel, Berlin: Förderkreis Museumsdorf Düppel e.V. pp. 9-18.

I placed archaeological open-air museums in an international context but also described their use for society. 

Commentary: The Power of Time Travel.
In: Bodil Petersson & Cornelius Holtorf, eds. The Archaeology of Time Travel. Experiencing the Past in the 21st Century, pp 191-194.

This four-page commentary discusses three chapters under the title “Living the Distant Past”, being:

  • Performing the Past, Time Travels in Archaeological Open-air Museums, by Stefanie Samida
  • Being There, Time Travel, Experience and Experiment in Re-enactment and ‘Living History’ Performances, by Mads Daugbjerg
  • Face-to-Face with the Past, Pompeii to Lejre, by Cornelius Holtorf

Nie so gut wie in der Steinzeit.
In: R. Kelm et al., eds. Die Steinzeit erleben - 20 Jahre Archäologisch-Ökologisches Zentrum Albersdorf (AÖZA), pp 31-34.
This is a short article, congratulating the archaeological open-air museum in Albersdorf (DE) with their 20-year jubilee and sketching the value and future of archaeological open-air museums.

Archäologische Freilichtmuseen in Europa (co-authored with Rüdiger Kelm)
In: ICOM Deutschland, Mitteilungen 2017, pp 52-54.
This article introduces archaeological open-air museums to other museum colleagues in Germany. It explains what these museums are and that they have an organisation, affiliated to ICOM: EXARC. This article is co-authored with Rüdiger Kelm, Board member of ICOM Germany, who helped with language issues and edited it to fit to the public.

What happens in the Middle Ages stays in the Middle Ages
In: Peter Vemming & Thit Birk Petersen, editors. Middelaldercentret 25 år, pp 71-77.
At the occasion of 25 years Middelaldercentret in 2016, we wrote a short discussion about the museum, placing it in an international context and spending a few words on how its future could look like.

Archaeological open-air museums in Europe
In: R. Kelm, editor. Archaeology and Crafts, Experiences and Experiments on traditional skills and handicrafts in archaeological open-air museums in Europe, Husum: AÖZA, pp 127-137.
This book is a compilation of articles produced in the OpenArch project (2011-2015) on crafts in archaeological open-air museums. Paardekooper’s contribution is a short overview of such museums across Europe and their history.

Archeologische Openluchtmusea in Nederland. Een beetje Geschiedenis.
In: J. Flamman et al. eds. Bulletin voor Archeologische Experimenten en Educatie (BAEE), vol. 17, issue 2, Leiden: VAEE, pp.17-24.
This article is the first time an overview is presented of archaeological open-air museums in the Netherlands and is published in the Bulletin of the National Association on Archaeological Experiments and Education. It analyses the different motives and groups who started and are running such museums and this way, attempts to explain how these museums have come to being and what their success is.

Evoking the past, shaping the future. How archaeological open air museums create new memories (co-authored with Katrin Pres)
In: ICOM News, vol. 64, issue 2, Paris: ICOM, pp.8.
ICOM news reaches 30,000 museum professionals worldwide. We did a short article on the importance of archaeological open-air museums, the histories they present and what people can learn.

Archaeological Open Air Museums in Europe - Visitors' expectations versus visitors' experience
In: Archäologisches Nachrichtenblatt, vol. 16, issue 3, Berlin: Akademie Verlag, pp.226-232.
I described the discrepancy between what visitors to archaeological open-air museums expect and what these museums deliver, from an international perspective.

Reflecting on experimental archaeology: interview with John Coles
In: euroREA. Journal for (Re)construction and Experiment in Archaeology, vol. 6/2009, Chlumec nad Cidlinou: EXARC, pp.65-68.
euroREA is the former EXARC Journal. The interview with John Coles was one of a series of such articles where I interviewed VIPs in experimental archaeology. This included a good preparation (literature search). Coles is one of the four 'founding fathers' of modern day experimental archaeology. I later wrote a preface to the 2010 reprint of his groundbraking 1979 book on experimental archaeology.

Experimental Archaeology
In: Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Oxford, Academic Press, pp.1345-1358.
I wrote the key section on experimental archaeology in this authoritative encyclopaedia of Archaeology.

Archäologie und Tourismus im Freilichtbereich
In: Von der Landschaftsgeschichte zur touristischen Zukunft. Natur- und Kulturtourismus als Chance für den ländlichen Raum, Band 4, Albersdorf: Archäologisches Ökologisches Zentrum Albersdorf (AÖZA), pp.24-34.
These are the proceedings of a conference on Nature and Culture Tourism in Rural Areas. I explained the importance of including archaeology and landscape in a rural tourism approach.

Public confronted with the reconstructed past. And what about the archaeologist?
In: Museumsblatt, Mitteilungen aus dem Museumswesen Baden-Württembergs, Heft 38, April 2005, pp 20-23.
In this article I explained the importance of reconstructing, besides showing original archaeological matter like sites and ruins. I emphasised that archaeologists do not only have a responsibility in research but as well in the dissemination of the results of it.

The story behind the product: die Geschichte(n) hinter dem Produkt
In: Experimentelle Archäologie in Europa Bilanz 2004, vol. 3, Oldenburg: EXAR, pp.139-150.
This series is of leading importance for experimental archaeology in the German speaking area of Europe. In this article, I emphasized the importance of archaeological open-air museums, more precisely that the quality of the stories they present is of vital importance, more important than the actual reconstructed environment.

Archaeologists and the public – are living history museums the right place to be?
In: M. Kotorová-Jenčová, editor. Experimentálna archeológia a popularizácia archeologického bádania v múzejnej a školskej praxi - Referáty z konferencie, pp 149-165.
These are the proceedings of the first conference in Slovakia on open-air museums and tourism. The article describes my early attempts to give a structured overview of the nature of archaeological open-air museums. I also explain their importance as the best place for archaeologists to interact with the public.

Probier mal die Hängematten aus, in denen die Matrosen schliefen. Vom Nutzen neuer alter Koggeschiffe für die Archäologie
In: Experimentelle Archäologie, Bilanz 1996, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland, vol. 30, Oldenburg: Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde und Vorgeschichte, pp.37-50.
My first article in these series of proceedings of experimental archaeology conferences in German speaking Europe is a summary of my MA dissertation. I discussed the use of (re)constructed ships, based on archaeological finds.

Archeologie en toerisme
In J. Flamman et al., editors: Bulletin voor Archeologische Experimenten en Educatie (BAEE), vol. 4, issue 3, Leiden: VAEE, pp.11-13.
This article gives an overview over the state of the art of archaeology and tourism in the Netherlands in 1999.

Edited Volumes

The Roman Frontier along the River Rhine. The Role of Museums in revitalizing Cultural Landscapes.
Editors: de Bruin, Hertog & Paardekooper, Eindhoven: ICOM Netherlands (in print).

Experiments Past. Histories of Experimental Archaeology
Editors: Reeves Flores & Paardekooper
Leiden: Sidestone
Reeves Flores and I organised a conference for EXARC on the history of experimental archaeology in Sagnlandet Lejre (DK) in 2012. My role in the proceedings was to manage the editors, invite extra authors, co-edit the articles and manage the process so we were not running out of time. I also managed the contact with the publisher and the NGOs covering the costs.

Espais de presentació del patrimoni arqueològic: la reconstrucció in situ a debat.
Editors: Belarte, Masriera, Paardekooper & Santacana Mestre
Barcelona: ICAC
2011 we organised a conference in Calafell (ES) on the debate about on-site reconstruction of archaeological remains. This was the 6th international archaeological conference at Calafell. Papers include important sites like Colonial Williamsburg (USA), Guedelon (FR), Carnuntum (AT) and Xanten (DE). I was one of the editors of the articles (text and contents) and worked on the English texts although I am no native speaker. 

Guide to the archaeological open air museums in Europe
Editors: Pelillo, Paardekooper, Pulini, Zanasi & Caruso
Modena: Museo Civico Archeologico Etnologico di Modena.
This guide, published in three languages, offers an overview over 220 archaeological open-air museums. I compiled the list of museums, their contact details, the periods they depict et cetera. The Italian team then collected information and wrote the stories with pictures. I continued to update the list of venues which at present contains over 500 of them and is presented online at

Experiencing Archaeology By Experiment, Experimental Archaeology Conference 2007
Cunningham, Heeb & Paardekooper
Exeter: Oxbow Books
Together with two other postgrad students, I organised the 2nd experimental archaeology in the UK conference. For this volume, I managed the contact with the authors and the publisher Oxbow. I also co-edited the articles although I am no native speaker.

Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop, experimental and educational aspects of bronze metallurgy, Wilhelminaoord 18 – 22 October 1999
Editors: Paardekooper, Tulp & Meeks
Leiden: VAEE
I kept in touch with the authors and kept the editors on schedule. We did the graphic and publishing process in house as at that moment I was Chair of VAEE. These proceedings turned into a collectors item, reason why we republished these online at EXARC.